Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) | Adding a Temporary IPv6 Address on Linux.

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) | Adding a Temporary IPv6 Address on Linux.

IPv6 [Internet Protocol version 6]


Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) is a network layer protocol that enables data communications over a packet switched network.

Packet switching involves the sending and receiving of data in packets between two nodes in a network. The working standard for the IPv6 protocol was published by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) in 1998.

The IETF specification for IPv6 is RFC 2460. IPv6 was intended to replace the widely used Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) that is considered the backbone of the modern Internet.

IPv4 currently supports a maximum of approximately 4.3 billion unique IP addresses. IPv6 supports a theoretical maximum of 2128 addresses (340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 to be exact!).

IPv6 and IPv4 share a similar architecture. The majority of transport layer protocols that function with IPv4 will also function with the IPv6 protocol. Most application layer protocols are expected to be interoperable with IPv6 as well, with the notable exception of File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

An IPv6 address consists of eight groups of four hexadecimal digits. If a group consists of four zeros, the notation can be shortened using a colon to replace the zeros.

A main advantage of IPv6 is increased address space. The 128-bit length of IPv6 addresses is a significant gain over the 32-bit length of IPv4 addresses, allowing for an almost limitless number of unique IP addresses.



IPv6 features

* Supports source and destination addresses that are 128 bits (16 bytes) long.

* Requires IPSec support.

* Uses Flow Label field to identify packet flow for QoS handling by router.

* Allows the host to send fragments packets but not routers.

* Doesn’t include a checksum in the header.

* Uses a link-local scope all-nodes multicast address.

* Does not require manual configuration or DHCP.

* Uses host address (AAAA) resource records in DNS to map host names to IPv6 addresses.

* Uses pointer (PTR) resource records in the IP6.ARPA DNS domain to map IPv6 addresses to host names.

* Supports a 1280-byte packet size (without fragmentation).

* Moves optional data to IPv6 extension headers.

* Uses Multicast Neighbor Solicitation messages to resolve IP addresses to link-layer addresses.

* Uses Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) messages to manage membership in local subnet groups.

* Uses ICMPv6 Router Solicitation and Router Advertisement messages to determine the IP address of the best default gateway.


Adding a Temporary IPv6 Address on Linux.

Using “IP”

/sbin/ip -6 addr add <ipv6address>/<prefixlength> dev <interface>

eg: /sbin/ip -6 addr add 2001:49f0:2920::a2/64 dev eth0


Using “ifconfig”

/sbin/ifconfig <interface> inet6 add <ipv6address>/<prefixlength>

eg: /sbin/ifconfig eth0 inet6 add 2001:49f0:2920::a2/64


Add an IPv6 route through a gateway

Using “ip”

/sbin/ip -6 route add <ipv6network>/<prefixlength> via <ipv6address>
¬ [dev <device>]

eg: /sbin/ip -6 route add default via 2001:49f0:2920::1


Using “route”

/sbin/route -A inet6 add <ipv6network>/<prefixlength> gw
¬ <ipv6address> [dev <device>]

eg: /sbin/route -A inet6 add default gw 2001:49f0:2920::1


Removing an IPv6 address

Using “ip”

/sbin/ip -6 addr del <ipv6address>/<prefixlength> dev <interface>

eg: /sbin/ip -6 addr del 2001:49f0:2920::a2/64 dev eth0


Using “ifconfig”

/sbin/ifconfig <interface> inet6 del <ipv6address>/<prefixlength>

eg: /sbin/ifconfig eth0 inet6 del 2001:49f0:2920::a2/64


NoSql Injection

JavaScript (server-side) injection vulnerabilities are not limited. NoSQL database engines that process JavaScript containing user-specified parameters can also be vulnerable.  For example, MongoDB supports the use of JavaScript  functions for query specifications etc. Since MongoDB databases do not have strictly defined database schemas, using JavaScript for query syntax allows developers to write complex queries against disparate  document structures. For example,we have a MongoDB collection that contains some documents representing books, some documents representing movies, and some documents representing music albums.  This JavaScript query function  will select all the documents in the specified collection that were either written, filmed, or recorded in the specified time:



var search_time = input_value;

return this.publishingTime == search_time ||

this.filmingTime == search_Time ||

this.recordingTime == search_Time;


If the application developer were building this application in PHP (for example), the source code might look like this:

$query = ‘function()


var search_time = ” .

$_GET[‘time’] . ”;’ .

‘return this.publishingTime == search_Time || ‘ .

this.filmingTime == search_Time || ‘ .

this.recordingTime == search_Time;}’;

$cursor = $collection->find(array(‘$where’ => $query));

This code uses the value of the request parameter “year” as the search
parameter. However, just as in a traditional SQL injection attack, since the query syntax is being constructed in an ad-hoc fashion  (i.e. query syntax concatenated along with user input), this code is vulnerable to a server-side JavaScript
injection attack. For example, this request would be an effective DoS attack against the system:

credits : sql injection attacks and defence.
Firefox Developer Edition

Firefox Developer Edition

Mozilla Firefox Released Firefox Developer Edition

Built for those who build the Web

Introducing the only browser made for developers like you.

  • Designed for developers

    The only browser made just for developers, Firefox Developer Edition was created with your workflow in mind. Build, test, scale and more all from one place, for the first time ever.

  • Debug any browser

    Inspect and debug your app across any browser or device with Valence — a powerful, pre-installed extension that you’ll only find in Firefox Developer Edition.

  • Pixel-perfect coding

    Target screen sizes with the Responsive Design View and tweak your CSS on the fly with the built-in Style Editor for pixel-perfect coding.

    All your favorite dev tools and more

    Firefox Developer Edition brings your core dev tools together with some powerful new ones that will extend your ability to work across multiple platforms from one place. It’s everything you’re used to, only better. And only from Firefox.


    Develop, deploy and debug Firefox OS apps directly in your browser, or on a Firefox OS device, with this tool that replaces App Manager.

Responsive Design View

See how your Website or Web app will look on different screen sizes without changing the size of your browser window.


Develop and debug your apps across multiple browsers and devices with this powerful extension that comes pre-installed with Firefox Developer Edition.

Web Audio Editor

Inspect and interact with Web Audio API in real time to ensure that all audio nodes are connected in the way you expect.

Page Inspector

Examine the HTML and CSS of any Web page and easily modify the structure and layout of a page.

Web Console

See logged information associated with a Web page and use Web Console to interact with Web pages using JavaScript.

JavaScript Debugger

Step through JavaScript code and examine or modify its state to help track down bugs.

Network Monitor

See all the network requests your browser makes, how long each request takes and details of each request.

Style Editor

View and edit CSS styles associated with a Web page, create new ones and apply existing CSS stylesheets to any page.

How to Delete Google + Community

How to Delete your Google Plus Community ?

if you are planning to delete your Google + community but you don’t figure it out how to, here the answer 

How to :
  • Sign in to your Google + account and select your community which you want to delete 
  • then click on Action Button and Select Edit Community 

  • After page opens click “Delete this Community” link

  • Pop-up window will show and ask you for confirmation, just tick mark in the check box then click on Delete Community button.

How to fix Unable to lock the administration directory (/var/lib/dpkg/) error in Linux

Some of you may experience this error in your life if you are using linux .it happens when previous installation fails , here is the screenshot which is happened in my Linux Distro

E: Could not get lock /var/lib/dpkg/lock – open (11: Resource temporarily unavailable)
E: Unable to lock the administration directory (/var/lib/dpkg/), is another process using it?

 its very easy to fix this error just type following commands in your terminal

sudo rm /var/lib/dpkg/lock  

this will delete the “lock” directory in /var/lib/dpkg/

after that you can install what ever you want

How to fix Virtual Device error in Skype in linux Linux

How to fix Virtual Device error in Skype in linux

all audio devices detects as “Virtual Device”

in this case my Skype Version is 
4.2 version also have this issue 
this is occur because your system don’t have libpulse0:i386 package ! all you need is to install the package to fix the issue

now open up your terminal  , type following command line 

sudo apt-get install libpulse0:i386

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             type your password and press enter

press y and press enter to begin installation of package

after installation , quit Skype and relaunch , 
go to Skype ==Options ==Sound Devices == and check , now you can find PulseAudio detects

Check your Skype with Sound Test Service
go to  Skype ==Options ==Sound Devices ==Make a test call

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